When Does Direct Deposit Go Through

Consult This Employee Termination Checklist to Keep Things Running Smoothly

by Rachel Gray @ Payroll Tips, Training, and News

Employees leave companies every day to pursue growth opportunities, accommodate personal lives, or experience change. As an employer, you hope employees won’t leave your business, but you know this is wishful thinking. When an employee resigns, you need to know what to do. The average annual overall turnover rate is 19%, according to SHRM. If […]

The post Consult This Employee Termination Checklist to Keep Things Running Smoothly appeared first on Payroll Tips, Training, and News.

rapid! PayCard Green Dot Announcement

by rapid! PayCard @ rapid! PayCard

Green Dot to Acquire UniRush, LLC, Operating Company for RushCard and Rapid! PayCard Transaction Expected to Generate Significant Strategic and Financial Synergies PASADENA, Calif.–(BUSINESS WIRE)–Green Dot Corporation (NYSE:GDOT) today announced that it has entered into an agreement to acquire UniRush, LLC, and its operating businesses RushCard, a leading online direct-to-consumer general purpose reloadable prepaid card provider, and Rapid! PayCard, a leading corporate payroll card provider. The acquisition, which maps to “Step Five” of Green Dot’s “Six Step Plan” to enhance shareholder value, materially expands Green Dot’s scale with the addition of the RushCard and Rapid! PayCard installed customer bases, while establishing Green Dot as a formidable player in the growing... Read More

4 Financial Resolutions To Start Any Day of the Year [Downloadable Family Budget Worksheet]

by Kara Vincent @ LRRCU

Who says resolutions have to start on New Year’s Day?  Get yourself started whatever day you feel inspired.  Here are few important financial goals that you can begin whether it’s January 1, August 1 or a random Tuesday in November. #1: Look at the Financial Big Picture – Use Our Family Budget Worksheet You feel […]

The post 4 Financial Resolutions To Start Any Day of the Year [Downloadable Family Budget Worksheet] appeared first on LRRCU.

How to Setup Direct Deposit

How to Setup Direct Deposit

Bank of America

Bank of America direct deposit makes it easy for you to deposit checks into your account automatically. Learn about setting up direct deposit today.

SCU AVP Donnelly receives Young Professional Award

by Lori Holmes @ Service Credit Union

Portsmouth, NH – The Cooperative Credit Union Association (CCUA) recently presented Service Credit Union Assistant Vice President of the Contact Center Dennis Donnelly with the Young Professionals Award of Excellence. The award signifies a young professional who best demonstrates a commitment to the values and principles defining the credit union’s mission. Donnelly was one of […]


by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

FIFO is a cost layering concept under which the first goods purchased are assumed to be the first goods sold. The concept is used to devise the valuation of ending inventory, which in turn is used to calculate the cost of goods sold.

The FIFO concept (also known as first in, first out) is best shown with an example. ABC Company buys ten green widgets for $5 each in January, and an additional ten green widgets in February for $7 each. In March, it sells ten widgets. Based on the FIFO concept, the first ten units that ABC purchased should be charged to the cost of goods sold, on the theory that the first units into inventory should be the first ones removed from it. Thus, the cost of goods sold in March should be $50, while the value of the inventory at the end of March should be $70. Even if some of the actual $7 green widgets were sold in March, the FIFO concept states that the cost of the earliest units should still be charged to the cost of goods sold first.

A company that uses FIFO will find that the costs it maintains in its records for its inventory will always be the most current costs, since the last items purchased are still assumed to be in stock. Conversely, the cost of the oldest items will be charged to the cost of goods sold. In a normal inflationary environment, this means that the cost of goods sold will be relatively low in comparison to current costs, which will increase the amount of taxable income; also, the inventory value reported on the balance sheet will approximately match current costs.

Alternative methods of accounting for inventory are the weighted average method, the last-in first-out method, and the specific identification method.

The FIFO concept also applies to the actual usage of inventory. When inventory items have a relatively short life span, it can be of considerable importance to structure the warehousing storage system so that the oldest items are presented to pickers first. Doing so reduces the risk of inventory spoilage.

Related Courses

Accounting for Inventory 
How to Audit Inventory 

Explor-a-Mortgage, Part 1

by Jan @ Linn Area Credit Union

When was the last time you refinanced your home? Were interest rates lower or higher? If you don’t know, then you should take a look at your mortgage paperwork. It might be totally worth your while! My interest (pun intended!) in this is very personal. My husband and I refinanced about four years ago, and […]

The post Explor-a-Mortgage, Part 1 appeared first on Linn Area Credit Union.

Payroll records

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Payroll records contain information about the compensation paid to employees and any deductions from their pay. These records are needed by the payroll staff to calculate gross pay and net pay for employees. Payroll records typically include information about the following items:

  • Bereavement pay
  • Bonuses
  • Commissions
  • Deductions for pensions, benefits, charitable contributions, stock purchase plans, and so forth
  • Direct deposit information
  • Gross wages
  • Hours worked
  • Manual check payments
  • Net wages paid
  • Salary rates
  • Vacation and/or sick pay

The information in payroll records have traditionally been stored on paper documents, but can also be recorded as electronic documents.

Payroll records can be considered a subset of the information stored in human resources records, which can contain considerably more information than items pertaining to just employee pay and deductions.

The time period over which payroll records must be retained will depend upon government requirements. The Internal Revenue Service typically states a required retention period in each document it issues dealing with payroll issues. In general, wage calculations should be retained for two years, while collective bargaining agreements should be retained for three years.

Related Courses

Payroll Management 

How P2P Payment is Changing Personal Finance

by rapid! PayCard @ rapid! PayCard

Emerging Peer-to-peer payment technology is growing in popularity, and will soon make back-of-napkin IOUs obsolete. Peer-to-peer payment, also known as P2P payment, is online technology that allows users to transfer funds from a bank account or credit card via the internet or mobile phone. One study found that nearly a quarter of mobile users sent money to another person from an app in 2016 — this statistic nearly triples when it comes to the millennial generation. The growing trend of P2P payment is just another chapter in 21st century technological augmentation of traditional services. Whether it’s ridesharing, online shopping, or P2P payment, consumers are foregoing tradition, and choosing digital alternatives... Read More

Time needed to process a payroll

Time needed to process a payroll


If you're paying your employees through direct deposit, you'll want to run your payroll 4 business days (excluding weekends and bank holidays) prior to your employee payday due to the standard Auto...

What Is an FEIN?

by Mike Kappel @ Payroll Tips, Training, and News

When you run a business, you must meet many IRS requirements. You might need an FEIN to identify your business on documents like payroll tax forms. What does FEIN mean? What is an FEIN? FEIN is an acronym for Federal Employer Identification Number, also known as an EIN. This unique, nine-digit number is used by […]

The post What Is an FEIN? appeared first on Payroll Tips, Training, and News.

Deferred asset

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

A deferred asset is an expenditure that is made in advance and has not yet been consumed. It arises from one of two situations:

  • Short consumption period. The expenditure is made in advance, and the item purchased is expected to be consumed within a few months. This deferred asset is recorded as a prepaid expense, so it initially appears in the balance sheet as a current asset.
  • Long consumption period. The expenditure is made in advance, and the item purchased is not expected to be fully consumed until a large number of reporting periods have passed. In this case, the deferred asset is more likely to be recorded as a long-term asset in the balance sheet.

Examples of expenditures that are routinely treated as deferred assets are:

  • Prepaid insurance
  • Prepaid rent
  • Prepaid advertising
  • Bond issuance costs

The reason for treating expenditures as deferred assets is that they would otherwise be charged to expense before the related benefits had been consumed, resulting in inordinately high expense recognition in earlier reporting periods, and excessively low expense recognition in later periods.

The deferred asset concept is not applied when a business uses the cash basis of accounting, since expenditures are recorded as expenses as soon as they are paid for under that method. Thus, these items would be charged to expense at once under the cash basis of accounting.

It is easy to forget about deferred asset items that are sitting on the balance sheet, which means that there tends to be a large write-off of these items at year end, when accounts are being examined by the auditors. To avoid this potentially large write-off, track all deferred asset items on a spreadsheet, reconcile the amounts on the spreadsheet to the account balance listed in the general ledger at the end of each reporting period, and adjust the account balance (usually with a periodic charge to expense) as necessary.

To avoid the labor associated with tracking deferred assets, consider adopting an accounting policy under which expenditures falling beneath a minimum amount are automatically charged to expense.

Related Courses

Bookkeeper Education Bundle 
Bookkeeping Guidebook 

The negative confirmation

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

A negative confirmation is a document issued by an auditor to the customers of a client company. The letter asks the customers to respond to the auditor only if they find a discrepancy between their records and the information about the client company's financial records that are supplied by the auditor. For example, a confirmation letter tells a customer that the client company's records at year-end show an ending accounts receivable balance for that customer of $500,000. If the customer agrees with this number, it does not have to contact the auditor to confirm the supplied information. The auditor will then assume that the customer agrees with the information presented to it in the confirmation.

A negative confirmation is designed for use in situations where a client company's internal controls are already considered to be quite strong, so that the confirmation process is used as a secondary audit method for the accounts under review.

A positive confirmation is one in which the customer is required to send back a document, either confirming or disputing the account information sent to it by the auditor.

A negative confirmation does not require as much follow-up work by auditors as a positive confirmation, but is also not considered to be as high-quality a source of audit evidence as the positive confirmation, since some customers may not be bothering to send back a confirmation document, even though they have detected a discrepancy. For this reason, most auditors prefer to use positive confirmations over negative confirmations, despite the additional cost.

A negative or positive confirmation is not restricted for use with a client company's customers. They are also commonly used with suppliers to confirm small-dollar account balances. A negative confirmation is rarely used with a lender, since auditors want to be very sure about the ending debt balances reported by their clients. In this case, positive confirmations are nearly always used.

Related Courses

How to Audit Cash 
How to Audit Liabilities 
How to Audit Receivables 

Successfully Plan for Holiday Shopping on a Budget [Downloadable Budget Sheet]

by Kara Vincent @ LRRCU

‘Tis the season to be jolly! ‘Tis the season for the gifts, decorations, family, friends, and children on their best behavior. ‘Tis the season for overloaded shopping bags, impulse buying, and credit card bills. Wait! That doesn’t sound as cheery. In 2016, according to a survey conducted by The American Research Group Inc., Americans spent […]

The post Successfully Plan for Holiday Shopping on a Budget [Downloadable Budget Sheet] appeared first on LRRCU.

Making the Leap

by Jan @ Linn Area Credit Union

I’m truly impressed with our Mobile Money app. Truly. Generally speaking, I’m not a person who leaps into action when the brand-spankin’-newest, high-tech gadget is introduced. Or software. Or anything, for that matter. It’s pretty easy for me to be that person who just goes along with what they’ve got, and that works for them. […]

The post Making the Leap appeared first on Linn Area Credit Union.

Why every business should consider switching to electronic payroll

by rapid! PayCard @ rapid! PayCard

Due to advancements in technology, utilizing payroll checks is becoming an outdated form of payment. Automated payment through direct deposit saves time and money, enhances security1, 2 and can make payday easy for employers and employees. Yet, resistance to modern banking solutions like direct deposit and paycards prevent many businesses from progressing in the 21st century. Paycard technology is growing in popularity, and as the benefits of switching to electronic payroll compound,  it becomes more difficult for businesses to avoid trying out alternative payment methods such as the rapid! PayCard. Still not convinced? Here are 3 reasons why paycheck holdouts are making the switch to a more convenient, modern, and... Read More

This Is Why Research On Behavioral Finance Won the Nobel Prize

by Cat Alford @ Chime Banking

In October 2017, Richard Thaler got the call he’d been hoping for. After 40 plus years of economics research, he learned he won the Nobel Prize. As an economist, he faced ridicule from his colleagues for his research connecting human behavior to economics. Winning the Nobel Prize for his work in behavioral finance meant that his […]

The post This Is Why Research On Behavioral Finance Won the Nobel Prize appeared first on Chime Banking.

How To Be Financially Smart At Any Age

by Kara Vincent @ LRRCU

  As you go through the stages of life what it means to be “financially smart” will change. A smart financial move when you’re approaching your 40s is not the same as a smart financial move for a 19-year-old in college. At 40, there are more things to consider when making decisions about your money, […]

The post How To Be Financially Smart At Any Age appeared first on LRRCU.

Price to book ratio

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

The price to book ratio compares the current market price of a company's stock to its aggregate book value. When the ratio is excessively high, it can indicate that a company's shares are over-priced, especially when the ratio is high in comparison to the same calculation for other companies in the same industry. The calculation is:

Closing price of the stock ÷ (Total assets - Intangible assets - Liabilities)

Investors like to use the price to book ratio to search for undervalued companies, and invest in their stock in hopes of having the share price return to a more normal level over time. However, there are a number of issues with the ratio to be aware of, including the following:

  • The ratio could be low because the company has been mismanaged, in which case there can be no expectation that the ratio will improve over time.
  • The ratio could skewed too high because the company is using accelerated depreciation to write down the value of its fixed assets at an accelerated rate.
  • The company may have valuable intellectual property that does not appear on its balance sheet at all, but which is being recognized by investors through a high market price for its stock.
  • The company may be investing a large amount in research and development costs, which must be charged to expense as incurred, rather than capitalized. This tends to result in a comparatively low book value for the business.
  • The ratio is not overly useful when evaluating services firms and technology companies, since these entities have comparatively fewer fixed assets on their balance sheets.

Related Courses

Business Ratios Guidebook 
The Interpretation of Financial Statements 

What Does Pay Frequency Mean?

by Michele Bossart @ Payroll Tips, Training, and News

When you have employees, you need to run payroll so they can receive their wages. Before paying employees, you need to decide on a pay frequency. Your industry, the number of employees you have working for you, the type of workers you have, and legal requirements determine your pay frequency. But first, what does pay […]

The post What Does Pay Frequency Mean? appeared first on Payroll Tips, Training, and News.

What You Need to Know About a Qualifying Life Event

by Rachel Gray @ Payroll Tips, Training, and News

Employees have a window of time each year to sign up for certain types of employer-sponsored insurance. Although this open enrollment period takes place at the end of each year for all employees, an employee can add or remove coverage at any time of the year if they have a qualifying life event. What is […]

The post What You Need to Know About a Qualifying Life Event appeared first on Payroll Tips, Training, and News.

The Equifax Hack Was Worse Than Expected. What to Do Next

by Jeanine Skowronski @ Chime Banking

Looks like that worst-ever Equifax data breach was … actually worse. In late 2017, the credit reporting agency divulged a systems breach exposed the personal information of 145.5 millions Americans, including names, Social Security numbers, birth dates, addresses, dispute documents, as well as some credit card account and driver’s license numbers. But the hackers also obtained […]

The post The Equifax Hack Was Worse Than Expected. What to Do Next appeared first on Chime Banking.

Service Credit Union offers free access to FICO® Scores

by Lori Holmes @ Service Credit Union

In its continuing efforts to enhance member experience and provide innovative banking tools, Service Credit Union is now providing its members free access to their FICO® Scores. This includes key factors affecting their scores and general information on credit scores. . The scores, which will be updated quarterly, are available through Service Credit Union’s secure […]

Competitive advantage

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Competitive advantage is the ability of an organization to gain a material edge over its competitors. Having such an advantage can result in above-average profits or high levels of customer loyalty. There are many types of competitive advantage that a business can take advantage of, such as the following:

  • Having a supply of unusually inexpensive raw materials
  • Having access to a low-cost labor force
  • Owning a patent that is key to a product category
  • Having a large field servicing operation that can maintain products on short notice
  • Having a large chain of retail stores through which goods can be sold
  • Having a highly-regarded Internet store that experiences a large number of return visits
  • Having a design team that routinely produces leading-edge designs
  • Having a short product development cycle that pushes new products into the marketplace faster than what competitors can achieve

An example of how a core competency is used is to leverage a strong field service operation by noting the company's 24-hour response time when pitching a prospective sale to a customer. Another example is being able to offer a commodity product to a customer at an unusually low price, since the seller's workforce is located overseas, where labor costs are reduced by more than half.

Competitive advantage can be taken away by a determined competitor in one of two ways:

  • Match and then exceed the advantage offered by the company; or
  • Undermine the company's position by developing an entirely new competitive advantage that is highly prized by customers.

It is essential to maintain a competitive advantage, in order to sustain long-term profitability. This means that management must be aware of the advantage and continually reinforce it with ongoing investments in the targeted area.

A competitive advantage can even be achieved by unethical means, such as by offering bribes to the purchasing manager of a customer. Since other sellers are presumably not willing to engage in unethical behavior, the use of bribes can be seen as a competitive advantage.

Expense accounting

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Expense accounting involves the proper recognition and recordation of a consumed expenditure or an incurred obligation. This process is critical to recognizing expenses in the correct amount and reporting period. The following activities are needed in expense accounting:

Consumed Expenditures - Occurs when a supplier invoice is received or cash payment made in exchange for goods or services.

  1. Decide whether the amount is to be treated as an expense or asset. If the item can be consumed over multiple periods, it is likely to be treated as an asset.
  2. If an expense, recognize it within the correct expense account, such as direct materials, supplies, or utilities.
  3. If an asset, record it in either the prepaid expenses account (for short-term assets) or a fixed assets account (for longer-term assets).
  4. If a prepaid expense, monitor it each month and charge it to expense as consumed.
  5. If a fixed asset, charge a consistent portion of it to depreciation expense in each month, until it is fully consumed.
  6. If no invoice has been received or payment made, there may still be an obligation to pay a supplier. If so, create a reversing journal entry that records an accrued expense in the current period, and reverses it in the next period. Doing so ensures that the expense is recognized in the correct period. When the invoice is received or payment made in the next period, it offsets the reversal, resulting in no net entry in the following period.

Incurred Obligations - Occurs when a business takes on an obligation to pay a third party.

  1. Decide whether there is a probable obligation and the amount can be clearly determined. If so, record a liability. The offset to the liability is a charge to expense.
  2. Review the obligation in later periods to see if the amount has changed. If so, adjust the liability and the offsetting expense.

The expense accounting noted here is used in an accrual basis accounting system.

Related Courses

Bookkeeper Education Bundle 
Bookkeeping Guidebook 

Turnover ratios

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

A turnover ratio represents the amount of assets or liabilities that a company replaces in relation to its sales. The concept is useful for determining the efficiency with which a business utilizes its assets. In most cases, a high asset turnover ratio is considered good, since it implies that receivables are collected quickly, fixed assets are heavily utilized, and little excess inventory is kept on hand. This implies a minimal need for invested funds, and therefore a high return on investment.

Conversely, a low liability turnover ratio (usually in relation to accounts payable) is considered good, since it implies that a company is taking the longest possible amount of time in which to pay its suppliers, and so has use of its cash for a longer period of time.

Examples of turnover ratios are:

  • Accounts receivable turnover ratio. Measures the time it takes to collect an average amount of accounts receivable. It can be impacted by the corporate credit policy, payment terms, the accuracy of billings, the activity level of the collections staff, the promptness of deduction processing, and a multitude of other factors.
  • Inventory turnover ratio. Measures the amount of inventory that must be maintained to support a given amount of sales. It can be impacted by the type of production process flow system used, the presence of obsolete inventory, management's policy for filling orders, inventory record accuracy, the use of manufacturing outsourcing, and so on.
  • Fixed asset turnover ratio. Measures the fixed asset investment needed to maintain a given amount of sales. It can be impacted by the use of throughput analysis, manufacturing outsourcing, capacity management, and other factors.
  • Accounts payable turnover ratio. Measures the time period over which a company is allowed to hold trade payables before being obligated to pay suppliers. It is primarily impacted by the terms negotiated with suppliers and the presence of early payment discounts.

The turnover ratio concept is also used in relation to investment funds. In this context, it refers to the proportion of investment holdings that have been replaced in a given year. A low turnover ratio implies that the fund manager is not incurring many brokerage transaction fees to sell off and/or purchase securities. The turnover level for a fund is typically based on the investment strategy of the fund manager, so a buy-and-hold manager will experience a low turnover ratio, while a manager with a more active strategy will be more likely to experience a high turnover ratio and must generate greater returns in order to offset the increased transaction fees.

Related Courses

Business Ratios Guidebook 
The Interpretation of Financial Statements 

Get FREE Checking, Get $50!

by Jan @ Linn Area Credit Union

We know, we know! No one really wants to move their checking account. It’s such a chore! But let’s weigh the short-term pain against the long-term gain. If you don’t have a Linn Area checking account, take a good hard look what you DO have. Are you paying a monthly maintenance fee? Are you paying […]

The post Get FREE Checking, Get $50! appeared first on Linn Area Credit Union.

Do You Know About the 2017 Tax Filing Extension?

by Liz Oliver @ LRRCU

The date April 15 is probably as quickly recognizable to most Americans as July 4 or December 25. Traditionally recognized as Tax Day, it’s the deadline for filing your previous year’s tax return.  With one month to go, you may be feeling the pressure and scrambling to get the task completed in the remaining days.  But […]

The post Do You Know About the 2017 Tax Filing Extension? appeared first on LRRCU.

Why You Don't Get Your Direct Deposit On Weekend | LRRCU

Why You Don't Get Your Direct Deposit On Weekend | LRRCU


Frustrated because you don't receive your direct deposit on holidays and weekends? We're telling you the reasons why.

Inventory change

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Inventory change is the difference between the inventory totals for the last reporting period and the current reporting period. The concept is used in calculating the cost of goods sold, and in the materials management department as the starting point for reviewing how well inventory is being managed. It is also used in budgeting to estimate future cash requirements. If a business only issues financial statements on an annual basis, then the calculation of the inventory change will span a one-year time period. More commonly, the inventory change is calculated over only one month or a quarter, which is indicative of the more normal frequency with which financial statements are issued.

For example, if the ending inventory at the end of February was $400,000 and the ending inventory at the end of March was $500,000, then the inventory change was +$100,000.

The inventory change calculation is applicable to the following areas:

  • Accounting. Inventory change is part of the formula used to calculate the cost of goods sold for a reporting period. The full formula is: Beginning inventory + Purchases - Ending inventory = Cost of goods sold. The inventory change figure can be substituted into this formula, so that the replacement formula is: Purchases + Inventory decrease  - Inventory increase = Cost of goods sold. Thus, it can be used to slightly compress the calculation of the cost of goods sold.
  • Inventory management. The materials management staff uses the inventory change concept to determine how its purchasing and materials usage policies have altered the company's net investment in inventory. They typically drill down from the inventory change figure and review changes for each type of inventory (e.g., raw materials, work in process, and finished goods), and then drill down further to see where changes arose at the level of each stock keeping unit. The result of this analysis may include changes in ordering policies, the correction of faulty bills of material, and alterations to the production schedule.
  • Cash budgeting. The budgeting staff estimates the inventory change in each future period. Doing so impacts the amount of cash needed in each of these periods, since a reduction in inventory generates cash for other purposes, while an increase in inventory will require the use of cash.

The concept is also used in a general sense to keep track of the overall investment in inventory, which management may monitor to see if working capital levels are increasing at too rapid a pace.

Related Courses

Accounting for Inventory 
How to Audit Inventory 

Apple Pay Cash is Now Live — How Does it Work?

by rapid! PayCard @ rapid! PayCard

Learn everything you need to know about the new Apple P2P payment system That one friend, the one who still hasn’t repaid you for pizza because he “doesn’t have the right app,” is in trouble. Today, iPhone users can access what experts in the tech industry are calling “the Venmo Killer”: Apple Pay Cash. Apple Pay cash is a P2P payment service which allows users to send and receive payment through iMessage The days of P2P fragmentation are over. Thanks to Apple Pay Cash, all money transfers can take place through a central, default iOS application, and ultimately unify all P2P transactions under one secure, and intuitive, system. How to... Read More

When Does Direct Deposit Go Through? | Patriot Software

When Does Direct Deposit Go Through? | Patriot Software

Payroll Tips, Training, and News

If you pay some employees via direct deposit, they might ask you when they will receive their wages. When does direct deposit go through?

Throughput definition

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Throughput is the number of units that pass through a process during a period of time. This general definition can be refined into the following two variations, which are:

  • Operational perspective. Throughput is the number of units that can be produced by a production process within a certain period of time. For example, if 800 units can be produced during an eight-hour shift, then the production process generates throughput of 100 units per hour.
  • Financial perspective. Throughput is the revenues generated by a production process, minus all completely variable expenses incurred by that process. In most cases, the only completely variable expenses are direct materials and sales commissions. Given the small number of expenses, throughput tends to be quite high, except for those situations in which prices are set only slightly higher than variable expenses.

For operations, throughput can be increased by enhancing the productivity of the bottleneck operation that is constraining production. For example, an additional machine can be purchased, or overtime can be authorized in order to run a machine for an extra shift. The key point is to focus attention on the productivity of the bottleneck operation. If other operations are improved, the overall throughput of the system will not increase, since the bottleneck operation has not been enhanced. This means that the key focus of investment in the production area should be on the bottleneck, not other operations.

For financial analysis, throughput can be increased by altering the mix of products being produced, to increase the priority on those products that have the highest throughput per minute of time required at the constrained resource. If a product has a smaller amount of throughput per minute, it can instead be routed to a third party for processing, rather than interfering with the bottleneck operation. As long as some positive throughput is gained by outsourcing, the result is an increased overall level of the throughput for the company as a whole.

Related Courses

Constraint Management 

Where is my direct deposit?

Where is my direct deposit?

Chime Banking - Support and FAQs

Chime never holds direct deposits and will always post your funds as soon as we receive them from your employer or benefits provider. The timing of your deposit is dependent on when your employer (...

7 Habits That Will Help You Lead a More Successful and Productive Life

by Due.com @ Chime Banking

Regardless what path in life you’re on, your habits will dictate your success. They can empower you to achieve your goals just as easily as they can derail you. That said it’s just as important to focus on maintaining good habits as it is to rid yourself of the bad ones. In this article we’ll cover […]

The post 7 Habits That Will Help You Lead a More Successful and Productive Life appeared first on Chime Banking.

Join us for the Easy Expo!

by Jan @ Linn Area Credit Union

It seems like there’s always something new and exciting going on in Linn Area land! This year, we have a brand-spankin’-new format for our annual membership meeting on Monday, April 25. We’re calling it the Easy Expo and 2016 Annual Meeting, and here’s a quick snapshot of what it’s gonna look like! At 4:30 p.m., […]

The post Join us for the Easy Expo! appeared first on Linn Area Credit Union.

Service Credit Union to offer assistance for those affected by a Government Shutdown

by Lori Holmes @ Service Credit Union

Service Credit Union is committed to helping its members in the event of a government shutdown by covering the December mid-month payroll and offering a 0% loan. If the shutdown occurs and the Defense Finances and Accounting Services (DFAS) does not pay mid-month payrolls, Service Credit Union will post credits to members based on the […]

Human resource accounting

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Human resource accounting involves the tracking of all costs related to employees in a separate report. These costs may include the following:

Such an accounting system can be used to determine where human resources costs are especially heavy or light in an organization. This information can be used to redirect employees toward those activities to which they can bring the most value. Conversely, the report can be used to identify those areas in which employee costs are too high, which may lead to a reduction in force or a reallocation of staff away from those areas.

A more comprehensive human resource accounting system goes beyond the simple tracking of employee-related costs, and addresses the following two additional areas:

  • Budgeting. An organization's annual budget includes a component, in which is concentrated all employee costs being incurred from across the organization. By concentrating cost information by its nature, management can more clearly see the total impact of human resource costs on the entity.
  • Employee valuation. Rather than looking at employees as costs, the system is redirected toward viewing them as assets. This can involve the assignment of values to employees based on their experience, education, innovativeness, leadership, and so forth. This can be a difficult area in which to achieve a verifiable level of quantification, and so may have limited value from a management perspective.

From an accounting perspective, the expense-based view of human resources is quite easy - employee costs from the various departments are simply aggregated into a report. The employee valuation approach is not a tenable concept for the accountant, since this is an internally-generated intangible asset, and so cannot be recorded in the accounting system.

Related Courses

Human Resources Guidebook 
Payroll Management 

How to Set Up Direct Deposit to Your Banking Account

How to Set Up Direct Deposit to Your Banking Account

Linn Area Credit Union

Direct deposit is instant and convenient for businesses and employees. Your paychecks will consistently get to the bank on time. Fill out the forms.

Nonprofit accounting

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Nonprofit accounting refers to the unique system of recordation and reporting that is applied to the business transactions engaged in by a nonprofit organization. A nonprofit entity is one that has no ownership interests, has an operating purpose other than to earn a profit, and which receives significant contributions from third parties that do not expect to receive a return. Nonprofit accounting employs the following concepts that differ from the accounting by a for-profit entity:

  • Net assets. Net assets take the place of equity in the balance sheet, since there are no investors to take an equity position in a nonprofit.
  • Donor restrictions. Net assets are classified as being either with donor restrictions or without donor restrictions. Assets with donor restrictions can only be used in certain ways, frequently being assigned only to specific programs. Assets without donor restrictions can be used for any purpose.
  • Programs. A nonprofit exists in order to provide some kind of service, which is called a program. A nonprofit may operate a number of different programs, each of which is accounted for separately. By doing so, one can view the revenues and expenses associated with each program.
  • Management and administration. Costs may be assigned to the management and administration classification, which refers to the general overhead structure of a nonprofit. Donors want this figure to be as low as possible, which implies that the bulk of their contributions are going straight to programs.
  • Fund raising. Costs may be assigned to the fund raising classification, which refers to the sales and marketing activities of a nonprofit, such as solicitations, fund raising events, and writing grant proposals.
  • Financial statements. The financial statements produced by a nonprofit entity differ in several respects from those issued by a for-profit entity. For example, the statement of activities replaces the income statement, while the statement of financial position replaces the balance sheet. Both for-profit and nonprofit entities issue a statement of cash flows. Finally, there is no nonprofit equivalent for the statement of stockholders' equity, since a nonprofit has no equity.

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Keeping You in the Green

by Kathleen @ Linn Area Credit Union

The month of March is all about the green. You’ve got St. Patrick’s Day, the first day of spring, and it’s also National Credit Education Month. So it’s a great time to take a look at your credit report and see what you can do to improve it! You probably already know that your credit […]

The post Keeping You in the Green appeared first on Linn Area Credit Union.

Should Businesses Stop Accepting Cash?

by rapid! PayCard @ rapid! PayCard

Visa is paying out a jackpot to vendors willing to bet against old money, and roll the dice on cashless transactions. Visa will give $10,000 to 50 restaurants that pledge to go cashless. The new initiative, what Visa executive Jack Forestall calls “a journey to go cashless,” will incentivize vendors to rip off the bandaid of paper transactions and progress to a cashless system. The money can be used for marketing and updating point of sale technology to focus payment exclusively on credit and debit cards and electronic payment. Visa will select participating merchants in August. Cash remains the predominate method of payment, according to the Federal Reserve. A report... Read More

Direct Deposit - When does it happen?

Direct Deposit - When does it happen?

Welcome to the Homesteading Today Forum and Community!

Because of some (OK maybe a lot) procrastination we have 3 different accounts in 3 different banks with direct deposits going into them on a monthly...

Organic growth

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Organic growth is the increase in sales of a business generated by those of its operations that were in existence at the beginning of the measurement period. The concept is used to differentiate between sales generated from existing operations and those operations that were acquired during the measurement period. In particular, organic growth is used to determine whether existing operations are in a state of decline, neutral growth, or expansion. It is entirely possible that organic "growth" will actually be negative.

For example, a company may report 100% growth during a period, but further analysis may reveal that 95% of the growth was from sales attributable to an acquisition and 5% to existing operations.

Organic growth can be caused by any of the following:

  • An increase in prices
  • An increase in units sold of existing products
  • Sales of new products from existing operations
  • Sales to new customers for products from existing operations
  • Sales generated by new distribution channels
  • Sales generated in new sales regions

Organic growth nearly always refers to changes in revenue, but can be used in reference to changes in profitability or cash flows.

The organic growth concept is a solid growth strategy for many businesses. This approach depends on internally-generated growth, rather than through acquisitions, and is a particularly viable option for a business that does not have sufficient cash to acquire other entities. However, this type of growth tends to be rather slow, especially when compared to the massive sales gains that can be achieved through an acquisition strategy. Also, organic growth could be in a sales segment that does not generate much cash flow, whereas an acquisition could generate sales in a more profitable segment of the market.

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How to Save Money on Your Utility Bills

by Melanie Lockert @ Chime Banking

Do you cringe each month when you get your utility bills? When you see a super high bill, do you wonder what happened? We’ve all been there, and high bills for gas, electricity and cable can certainly put a dent in your bank account. But all is not lost. If you want to keep your […]

The post How to Save Money on Your Utility Bills appeared first on Chime Banking.

The chart of accounts most suitable for a small company

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

A smaller business can dispense with many of the more specialized accounts and instead use an abbreviated chart of accounts. By doing so, it can greatly simplify the chore of recording business transactions. The following list of accounts may be adequate for compiling an income statement and balance sheet under a double entry bookkeeping system. However, please note that there are nearly always special accounts used in some industries, which are not mentioned in the following list. The basic accounts are:


  • Cash. Includes the balances in all checking and savings accounts.
  • Accounts receivable. Includes all trade receivables. It may be necessary to also have an "Other Receivables" account for other types of receivables, such as advances to employees.
  • Inventory. Includes raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods inventory.
  • Fixed assets. Can be subdivided into multiple additional accounts, such as machinery, equipment, land, buildings, and furniture.
  • Accumulated depreciation. One account is generally used to compile the accumulated depreciation for all types of fixed assets.


  • Accounts payable. Includes all trade payables due to suppliers.
  • Accrued expenses. Includes all accrued liabilities, such as for wages and taxes.
  • Sales taxes payable. Includes all sales taxes billed to customers, and to be remitted to the applicable local governments.
  • Notes payable. Includes the remaining balance on all loans payable. For tracking purposes, it may be easier to create a separate account for each loan payable.

Equity (assumes a corporation)

  • Common stock. Includes the amount originally paid by shareholders for their stock.
  • Retained earnings. Includes all cash retained in the business from profits, which have not been distributed to shareholders.


  • Service revenues. Includes all sales related to the provision of services to customers.
  • Product revenues. Includes all sales of products to customers.
  • Repair revenues. Includes sales generated by repair work and the sale of spare parts to customers.


  • Cost of goods sold. This includes at least the material cost of items sold, and at a more sophisticated level, can include the cost of direct labor and allocated factory overhead.
  • Salaries and wages. Includes the cost of all salaries and wages not already included in the cost of goods sold.
  • Rent expense. Includes the cost of rent for building space, vehicles, equipment, and so forth.
  • Utilities expense. Includes the cost of heat, electricity, broadband, phones, and so forth.
  • Travel and entertainment expense. Includes the cost of travel, meals, housing, and related expenses incurred during employee travel on company business.
  • Advertising expense. Includes advertising and other marketing expenses.
  • Depreciation expense. Includes the expense related to depreciation. This is a non-cash expense.

Non-Operating Revenues and Expenses

  • Interest income. Includes income on all invested funds.
  • Interest expense. Includes interest paid and accrued on debts owed by the company to lenders.
  • Gain on sale of assets. Includes any gains on the sale of assets.
  • Loss on sale of assets. Includes any losses on the sale of assets.

It is best to consult with a CPA who understands a company's industry to see if any additional accounts should be added to this list. In general, however, the preceding chart of accounts should be sufficient for a small company.

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How to Prepare for an Interview When You’re Self-Employed

by Due.com @ Chime Banking

There are many myths about self-employment that people may start to mistake for fact. Working for yourself can be a great thing, but it doesn’t always mean you’ll be 100% in control of your career and the day-to-day operations. Often times, you’ll still have to work with others and may even have to please clients if you’re […]

The post How to Prepare for an Interview When You’re Self-Employed appeared first on Chime Banking.

Correcting Employment Taxes: What to Do If You Withhold the Wrong Amount

by Rachel Gray @ Payroll Tips, Training, and News

It’s easy to make mistakes, especially when you have a million and one things on your plate. One error you could make is deducting the wrong amount from employee wages. Correcting employment taxes is necessary if you withhold too much or too little from your employees’ paychecks. This article provides an overview of employment taxes […]

The post Correcting Employment Taxes: What to Do If You Withhold the Wrong Amount appeared first on Payroll Tips, Training, and News.

National Teach Children to Save Day

by rapid! PayCard @ rapid! PayCard

Like any company that provides technology to make life easier, we examine the millennial demographic. They are the population sector interested in options – from ways to communicate, to ways to bank. In their April 2016, article, Pew Research Center cited estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau that millennials have now “surpassed Baby Boomers as the nation’s largest living generation”. A powerful consumer force, the members of this group are working “real jobs” and building careers. They are open to alternatives. They also need them as they don’t typically comply with traditional banking methods. Per rapid! PayCard’s October 2016 article about banking options for millennials and the flexibility of getting... Read More

5 Creative Habits That Will Keep Your Finances On Track

by Ben Luthi @ Chime Banking

Improving your financial situation may seem as easy as saving more money and decreasing your expenses. But here’s the thing: if you want to see long-term improvements, you’ve got to first establish some good financial habits. This will help you both get on the right track and achieve your money goals. Financial habits are really […]

The post 5 Creative Habits That Will Keep Your Finances On Track appeared first on Chime Banking.

Service Credit Union donates to the N.H. Food Bank

by Lori Holmes @ Service Credit Union

Service Credit Union donated $10,000 and 1,326 pounds of food to the New Hampshire Food Bank, a program of Catholic Charites NH, in order to help the citizens of New Hampshire. Service Credit Union President/CEO David Van Rossum recently presented the check to New Hampshire Food Bank Executive Director Eileen Groll Liponis to help keep […]

Schedule a Check-up for Your Financial Life

by rapid! PayCard @ rapid! PayCard

Most of us are diligent about maintaining the various aspects of our life. We swap out the batteries on our smoke detectors with regularity; we schedule annual physicals, and get our car’s oil changed based on the manufacturer’s mileage recommendation. Still, many of us tend to take better care of our cars than we do our financial life. The irony being, an un-tended financial life can break down just as assuredly as an under-serviced automobile. It can run out of gas, but it can also seize up and need a roadside tow. In short, a well-examined financial life is worth exploring. 1. Schedule. Set a recurring point in time for... Read More

Learn All About Direct Deposit

Learn All About Direct Deposit

The Balance

Direct deposit allows you to have your paycheck automatically deposited into your checking account. It is the easiest way to receive your money.

Holiday Shopping Tips for Your Spending Personality

by Kara Vincent @ LRRCU

Although 41% of consumers report starting their holiday shopping in October or even earlier (Wow! Good for you!), an estimated 69% of Americans will shop over the Thanksgiving weekend. Early research from the National Retail Federation shows that the 2017 season will be a big deal, with holiday spending forecasted to be near $680 billion, up almost 4% […]

The post Holiday Shopping Tips for Your Spending Personality appeared first on LRRCU.

Here’s How to Improve Your Credit Score Faster

by Paul Sisolak @ Chime Banking

Good things may come to those who wait, but time isn’t on your side if you’re struggling to raise your credit score quickly. More than 30 percent of Americans have poor credit, and if you’re one of them it can be hard to improve it. Many people aim for a credit-building secured credit card, but it could […]

The post Here’s How to Improve Your Credit Score Faster appeared first on Chime Banking.

We Don’t Want You to Wait – Ways to Avoid Being On Hold

by Carolyn Pittman @ Service Credit Union

(And Our 10 Favorite Hold On Songs) Sitting and waiting on the phone for support probably tops most people’s lists of things they would rather not do. Thankfully, the Contact Center at Service Credit Union has invested in a wide variety of options that not only in many cases allow you to avoid picking up […]

Great Money Resolutions for the New Year

by Carolyn Pittman @ Service Credit Union

It’s that time of year again, recovering from the indulgences of the holidays, looking over the past year, breaking out the new calendar, and planning to do better in all aspects of life in the coming year. One of the most popular resolutions is to be better with money. The challenge, of course, is sticking […]

Your Guide to Direct Deposit During the Holidays

by rapid! PayCard @ rapid! PayCard

The holiday season is around the corner, which for some means eggnog and lights on display, but for others it means payroll delays. Automated payment through direct deposit is proven to be more efficient, secure and cost-effective than paper checks. Still, there are a few considerations to keep in mind when switching over to electronic payment — especially around the holidays. The holiday season is a double-edged sword: it’s likely the most expensive time of the year, but is also full of banking holidays which can affect the timeliness of direct deposit. Here’s why. What is the ACH and why does it matter? The Automated Clearing House is an electronic... Read More

Types of financial analysis

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

Financial analysis involves the review of an organization's financial information in order to arrive at business decisions. This analysis can take several forms, with each one intended for a different use. The types of financial analysis are:

  • Horizontal analysis. This involves the side-by-side comparison of the financial results of an organization for a number of consecutive reporting periods. The intent is to discern any spikes or declines in the data that could be used as the basis for a more detailed examination of financial results.
  • Vertical analysis. This is a proportional analysis of the various expenses on the income statement, measured as a percentage of net sales. The same analysis can be used for the balance sheet. These proportions should be consistent over time; if not, one can investigate further into the reasons for a percentage change.
  • Short term analysis. This is a detailed review of working capital, involving the calculation of turnover rates for accounts receivable, inventory, and accounts payable. Any differences from the long-term average turnover rate are worth investigating further, since working capital is a key user of cash.
  • Multi-company comparison. This involves the calculation and comparison of the key financial ratios of two organizations, usually within the same industry. The intent is to determine the comparative financial strengths and weaknesses of the two firms, based on their financial statements.
  • Industry comparison. This is similar to the multi-company comparison, except that the comparison is between the results of a specific business and the average results of an entire industry. The intent is to see if there are any unusual results in comparison to the average method of doing business.

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Service Credit Union named top CU Direct auto lender

by Lori Holmes @ Service Credit Union

Service Credit Union (SCU) was named the top auto lender in the New England/New York region and 10th nationally for 2017 by CU Direct. CU Direct works with auto dealers and credit unions throughout the U.S. to streamline the auto buying process. Last year, the credit union funded more than 21,000 auto loans at approximately […]

Members Win One-of-a-Kind Motorcycle!

by Ruth @ Linn Area Credit Union

Linn Area Credit Union members Don and Tina Schminkey are enjoying two new motorcycles after they won a 2017 Harley-Davidson Road Glide in the 2017 Motor Madness raffle. When Don and Tina bought a new Suzuki Can-Am Side by Side 30 at Metro Harley-Davidson Suzuki Can-Am, they also picked up some $10 Motor Madness raffle […]

The post Members Win One-of-a-Kind Motorcycle! appeared first on Linn Area Credit Union.

The Problem with Overdraft Fees

by Paul Sisolak @ Chime Banking

“Overdraft” is not a word we like to hear. Why? It generally means you’ll be dinged with a fee you don’t want to pay. To clarify, an overdraft fee occurs when you don’t have enough money in your bank account to pay for a purchase. When this happens, your bank will pay for the transaction […]

The post The Problem with Overdraft Fees appeared first on Chime Banking.

Getting Out of Debt: You Can Do It and Here’s How to Get Started

by Liz Oliver @ LRRCU

Most goals or resolutions that people set for themselves are neglected within a few weeks. It’s likely that this happens because people set far-reaching goals for themselves and then lose momentum when they don’t see results right away. A perfect example of this is the financial goal that many people set for themselves: getting out […]

The post Getting Out of Debt: You Can Do It and Here’s How to Get Started appeared first on LRRCU.

SCU to offer assistance for those affected by a government shutdown

by Lori Holmes @ Service Credit Union

Service Credit Union is committed to helping its members who are affected during the government shutdown. For those with direct deposit, Service Credit Union will post credits to members based on the postings nearest to January 1, 2018. The credit of that amount will take place on or before February 1, 2018. This will apply […]

Valuation account

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

A valuation account is paired with an asset or liability account, and is used to offset the value of the assets or liabilities recorded in the account with which it is paired. The result of this account pairing is a net balance, which is the carrying amount of the underlying asset or liability. The "valuation account" term is a less-used phrase that has the same meaning as the contra account concept.

Examples of valuation accounts are:

  • Allowance for doubtful accounts (paired with the trade accounts receivable account)
  • Allowance for obsolete inventory (paired with the inventory account)
  • Accumulated depreciation (paired with the various fixed asset accounts)
  • Discount on bonds payable (paired with the bonds payable account)
  • Premium on bonds payable (paired with the bonds payable account)

The valuation account concept is useful for estimating any possible reductions in the values of assets or liabilities prior to a more definitive transaction that firmly establishes a reduction.

Valuation accounts are only used in accrual basis accounting. They are not used in cash basis accounting.

Similar Terms

A valuation account is also known as a valuation reserve or contra account.

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The difference between an invoice and a statement

by Steven Bragg @ Articles - AccountingTools

A customer may receive an invoice and a statement from a supplier. What is the difference between these two documents? When a seller issues an invoice to a buyer, the invoice is related to a specific sale transaction where goods or services were provided to the buyer. Since the invoice relates to a specific sale transaction, it itemizes all of the information the buyer needs to know in order to pay the seller, including:

  • Invoice number
  • Invoice date
  • Item description
  • Item price
  • Shipping and handling charges
  • Sales tax
  • Total amount payable
  • Remit to address
  • Payment terms and early payment discount terms (if any)

The intent of an invoice is either to collect payment from the buyer, or to create evidence of the sale (if payment was made in advance or in cash). If payment was made at the time of sale, the invoice is stamped "Paid" before issuing it to the buyer.

When a seller issues a statement, the document itemizes all invoices that have not yet been paid by the buyer, as well as partial payments. In this case, the intent is to remind the buyer that it has an obligation to pay the seller. Since the statement is more aggregated than an invoice, it provides less detailed information at the invoice level. It typically includes the following items:

  • Statement date
  • Invoice numbers
  • Invoice dates
  • Invoice totals

A more sophisticated statement will aggregate invoice totals by time bucket, so that overdue invoices are clearly shown.

Invoices are issued whenever a sale has been completed, so they may be issued every day and in significant quantities. However, statements are usually only issued at regular intervals, such as once a month, as part of a company's collection activities.

From the perspective of the buyer, the receipt of an invoice triggers an accounting transaction, which is an account payable. Conversely, the receipt of a statement is strictly informational - it does not trigger the creation of an accounting transaction.

It can be unwise to treat a statement as an invoice and pay items listed on the statement, since it is possible that the buyer already paid for those items, but the payment has not yet been reflected in the seller's accounting system. A better alternative for the buyer is to make inquiries about any invoices that are listed on the statement, and obtain more detailed information before issuing a payment.

There can be some confusion between the invoice and statement terms when dealing with credit card providers, since they issue a "statement" that is actually an invoice.

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